Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Cause and effect relationship between government expenditure and revenue collection - Free Essay Example
Sample details Pages: 9 Words: 2582 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Type Cause and effect essay Level High school Did you like this example? CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Overview The relationship between government revenue and expenditure is a very important topic and has been an essential issue for many economists and policy makers as it represents budget deficit, government expenditure Plans and taxation structure of a country. Since the main objective of every government is to improve economic growth with low debt levels, better education system, development of infrastructure and job opportunities better fiscal policy is needed to achieve these goals. From a short term perspective fiscal policy is said to be expansionary when government expenditures exceeds the total revenue and the resulting deficit is then financed by the government, However if these expenditures contributes in economic growth then there is a long term relationship exist between government expenditure and economic growth. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Cause and effect relationship between government expenditure and revenue collection" essay for you Create order In addition different studies indicate that the determination of Economic growth is depended on tax levels. Whereas many believe that the most significant factor that contributes in economic growth is tax level as the collection for development purposes of most developed and developing countries depend on tax revenue. 1.2 Research Problem In Pakistan the level of budget deficits have consistently increasing from 2005 which is then financed by the government through external and domestic borrowing resulting in a higher debt levels due to high interest cost associated with it and leads to more future tax expectations. Thus the financing by the government for the compensation of deficit is an important variable, several studies have put light on the outcome of fiscal deficit but very few have tried to find the reasons and causes of these deficits which is why the nexus between government revenue and expenditure is still an unsolved issue. Therefore the main purpose of this research is to study the causal relationship between government revenue and expenditure. 1.3 Hypotheses H1: Tax Revenue causes Government Expenditure. H2: Government Expenditure causes Tax Revenue. H3: Tax Revenue and Government Expenditure bidirectionally cause to each other. 1.4 Outline of the Study The research studies the causal relationship between government expenditure and tax revenue to see the reasons for the consistent budget deficits in Pakistan from many years. In addition time series analyses have been done to forecast the trend of government expenditure and revenue based on the leading variable. CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW Nanthakumar and Taha (2007) have found a stable relationship between spending and revenue. Furthermore there is a long-term impact exist expenditures that enter as input into the production function and those that enter as inputs in investment technologies. Koch, Schoeman, and Tonder (2005) found that there is an association between burden of taxes and economic growth according to the findings based on the data of 1960-2002 if tax burden decreases economic growth increases significantly. Friedman (1982) explains expenditure of the government depends on total revenue because as taxes increases expenditure increases by which deficit remains at the same level, therefore the level of fiscal deficit cannot be reduced by increasing taxes. Buchanan and Wagner (1977) on the other hand have presented an alternative hypothesis that increase in taxes does not lead towards low expenditures because taxes creates higher price of goods for the public due to high interest cost associated with it Buchanan and Wagner suggest that in order to restore deficit government should limit its financing ability. Sobhee (2004) tested the causality from tax to expenditure and from expenditure to taxes by using the data of public finance and founded that for the utilization of public expenditure in a small economy government first accommodate the necessary funds, therefore to avoid the situation of fiscal deficit the government must carefully monitor and control its spending programs. Fasano and Wang (2002) in a research on GCC countries founded that the primary Source of revenue is oil and due to the economic fluctuations medium-term expenditure strategy should be adopted according to which expenditure should not exceed the non-oil revenue so that in recessions to compensate expenditures oil revenues can be injected by short-term accommodations. Second hypothesis where causality runs from expenditure to revenue the government first spend and then to accommodate the requ ired level of expenditure adjusts tax policy. Peacock and Wiseman (1979) argue that due to economic crises government expenditure increases and remain at the same level even when the crises is over. In other words government expenditure is driven by strong economic crises which is able to change public perception about the size of the government. Gounder, Narayan, and Prasad (2007) find compatibility with the second hypothesis that the increase in taxes for the accommodation of government spending affects on the capital investment by investors due to the fear of paying higher taxes in future. The third hypothesis is fiscal synchronization according to which expenditure and revenue decisions are independent and bilaterally cause to each other. Reflecting the traditional theories for the demand for public goods. Meltzer and Richard (1981), the demand of public expenditures and taxes need to compensate these expenditures are compared with many alternative spending programs for cost benefit analysis, therefore the practical implication of this hypothesis is bidirectional causality. Narayan and Narayan (2006) suggest three reasons regarding the importance of nexus between government revenue and expenditure first if proper implementation on policies is taken into consideration regarding government revenue fiscal deficit can be avoided, second if causality runs from expenditure to revenue outflow increases due to the fear that government spends first and pay for it later by increasing taxes. Third in case of bidirectional causality expenditure can rise faster than revenue which can create huge budget deficits because revenue and expenditure decisions are independent of each other. Baharumshah and Lau (2007) Find two sets of different results where the fiscal policy of Korea, Singapore and Thailand is driven by expenditures where the government finances revenue for the planned expenditures according to the limit of the balanced budget which facilitat e the long term sustainable budget position. However the taxation system should be implemented by taking care of the overall smooth fiscal policy. Whereas in case of Malaysia and Philippines expenditures and revenues are independent of each other and the level of government expenditures and revenues is determined through fiscal policy based on marginal cost and revenue. Furthermore the findings indicate that in order to achieve long-term economic growth fiscal consolidation is necessary to reduce deficits and debt levels which lead a country to fulfill expenditure priorities better and provide funds to more productive sectors. Griffin and McKinley (1992) believes that the expenditure policies of the government should be directed towards long-term future growth and for the well being of the people, Therefore activities that contribute more on socio economic development should be increased instead of using resources and funds to military defense projects. King and Rebelo (1990) taxation has a very important role in the long run growth process of a country where growth is not affected by indirect taxation, however direct taxation is harmful for growth. Nanthakumar and Taha (2008) found in an analysis of Malaysia that the major part of taxes is direct taxes and reducing direct and indirect taxes leads to reduce in government expenditures, In addition non-tax revenue does not contribute much in economys growth. Hondroyiannis and Papapetrou (1996) find unidirectional causality running from government expenditure to revenues in Greece where the reason of fiscal deficit from a long period of time was government spending decisions. The government spending to GDP is very high in Greece which results an operating inefficiency for the economy. Furthermore the results indicated that reducing fiscal deficit without reducing the government expenditure leads to failure. Ahiakpor and Amirkhalkhali (1989) Based on the analysis of Canada found that to show the rel evant results of fiscal policy government increase taxes which is a temporary and incomplete act in order to fully take control over fiscal deficit the government must reduce or limit its expenditures instead of finding ways to increase tax revenue burden on public. Baghestani and McNown (2004) in a study of Egypt and Jordan claim that to promote domestic savings and private investment it is necessary to eliminate budget deficit for both the counties. Baghestani supported the causality from tax revenue to expenditure in case of Egypt and bi-lateral causality in case Jordan. Furthermore promoted the process of privatization because it facilitate high domestic saving and investment and at the same time helps to reduce fiscal deficit. Neyapti (2008) studied the influence of fiscal decentralization on government revenue and expenditure and indicated that decentralization improves quality of governance which leads to decrease in budget deficit and stable economic condition. However the efficiency of fiscal decentralization increases in case of large population. Keho (2010) Study the data fo 1660 to 2005 to analyses the causal relationship between government expenditure and tax revenue to see which expenditure and revenue items plays a part in the reduction of budget deficit and found that GDP has significant effect on government expenditure. Furthermore the findings of granger causality test indicate unidirectional causality from government revenue to expenditure according to the findings the implementation for the elimination of fiscal deficit should not be made by just increasing revenues. Thus for the beneficial results spending cuts are necessary. In other words tax system should be made with proper spending control system. Brennan and Buchanan (1980) suggest that in order to reduce fiscal deficit constitutional limits should be imposed on post-constitutional government to reduce the revenue collection by latter governments so that position of maxim um financing of goods demanded by public and minimum revenue collection can be achieved. Baffes and Anwar (1990) conducted the research for the countries Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, and Pakistan to determine the behavior of government towards revenue and expenditures for the alignment of fiscal deficit. The results found to be positive for Mexico, Brazil and Pakistan while the similar findings havent been found for Argentina and Chile. For Brazil, Mexico and Pakistan causality runs in both ways in other words bidirectional causality where decisions for the government spending and revenue are taken simultaneously. However in case of Argentina and Chile causality runs from expenditure to revenue. The results indicates that to control budget deficit the government should increase revenue collection and restrain expenditure whereas public expenditures should be reduced in Argentina and Chile. Stoian (2008) founded in case of Romania by applying Johansen cointegration and Err or Correction model that the long run relationship between government revenue and expenditure do not affect major fiscal imbalances. CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODS 3.1 Method of Data Collection Data of the two variables Government Expenditure and Total Revenue is taken from secondary sources with the help of multiple sources which includes (Ministry of Finance), (State bank of Pakistan) and (Hand book of Statistics on Pakistan Economy). 3.2 Sample Size Sample of 31 observations have been used by using the data of public finance from the year 1979-2010. Where the variable (Total Tax Revenue) has been created by adding indirect-tax, direct-tax, Non-tax revenue and surcharges and (Total Expenditure) has been calculated by adding Development and Non-Development Expenditures. 3.3 Research Model Granger model is used to study the causality where TR is the total revenue and TE is total government expenditure. TRt = Ã ¢Ãâ ?1 + ÃÅ½Ã ´1 + TEt-1 + TEt-2 + ET1 TEt = Ã ¢Ãâ ?2 + ÃÅ½Ã ´2 + TRt-1 + TEt-2 + ET2 The above two equation represents the hypothesis where the causality running from total expenditure to revenue in equation one and from revenue to expenditure in equation two. The rejection of any hypothesis concludes unidirectional causality between government expenditure to revenue. However, rejection of both the hypothesis concludes bidirectional causality in other words fiscal synchronization exists between government revenue and expenditure. 3.4 Statistical Technique In this research granger causality test by Granger (1969) has been applied to study the causal relationship by comparing one time series with another (Government Expenditure with Government revenue) where one variable becomes the cause of the other variable to predict it significantly. In addition cross-correlation has been applied to assess the correlation between both time series variables. CHAPTER 4: RESULTS 4.1 Findings and Interpretation of the results Table 4.1 Pairwise Granger Causality Tests Sample: 1 32 Lags: 2 Null Hypothesis: Obs F-Statistic Prob. TOTAL_EX does not Granger Cause TOTAL_RE 30 0.84135 0.4430 TOTAL_RE does not Granger Cause TOTAL_EX 14.2132 8.E-05 Table 4.2 Pairwise Granger Causality Tests Sample: 1 32 Lags: 1 Null Hypothesis: Obs F-Statistic Prob. TOTAL_EX does not Granger Cause TOTAL_RE 31 0.20627 0.6532 TOTAL_RE does not Granger Cause TOTAL_EX 46.4229 2.E-07 The summary given in the table above shows that there is a unidirectional causality exist between total government expenditure and total revenue, as the value of F-Statistic is 3.5 when the causality runs from expenditure to revenue due to which the null hypothesis (TOTAL_EX does not Granger Cause TOTAL_RE) is accepted. However, the causality is running from revenue to expenditures as F-Statistics 3.5, Furthermore both lag 1 and lag 2 are tested to achieve better results as table 4.2 indicates therefore the null hypothesis (TOTAL_RE does not Granger Cause TOTAL_EX) is rejected. Table 4.3 Cross Correlations Series Pair:Total_Revenue with Total_Expenditure Lag Cross Correlation Std. Errora -16 -.177 .250 -15 -.143 .243 -14 -.099 .236 -13 -.056 .229 -12 -.010 .224 -11 .044 .218 -10 .097 .213 -9 .137 .209 -8 .210 .204 -7 .255 .200 -6 .299 .196 -5 .353 .192 -4 .427 .189 -3 .513 .186 -2 .663 .183 -1 .796 .180 0 .994 .177 1 .810 .180 2 .662 .183 3 .544 .186 4 .431 .189 5 .344 .192 6 .271 .196 7 .208 .200 8 .148 .204 9 .094 .209 10 .053 .213 11 .005 .218 12 -.036 .224 13 -.078 .229 14 -.114 .236 15 -.153 .243 16 -.188 .250 a. Based on the assumption that the series are not cross correlated and that one of the series is white noise. Figure 4.1 Total_Revenue with Total_Expenditure Lag Number The results of cross-correlation indicates total revenue as a leading time series variabler with a strong correlation of .994 with government expenditures at lag 0, furthermore correlation a positive correlation has been found from lag 1 to lag 11, However the correlation is decreasing and from 12 to 16 lags correlation in negative predicting that with the increase in total revenue, total government expenditure will decrease in future. 4.2 Hypotheses Assessment Summary Hypotheses F-Statistic Result Tax Revenue causes Government Expenditure. 46.4229 Accepted Government Expenditure causes Tax Revenue. 0.20627 Rejected Tax Revenue and Government Expenditure bidirectionally cause to each other. Rejected CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION, DISCUSSION, IMPLICATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH 5.1 Conclusion The research studies the causal link between total government expenditure and total revenue in Pakistan using granger causality test and the supportive cross correlation from 1979-2010. The result from granger causality supports the hypothesis that tax revenue causes government expenditure in Pakistan. In addition cross correlation results have indicated long-term results that with the increase in revenue expenditures will increase. Therefore the major conclusion drawn from this research is that in order to eliminate the problem of fiscal deficit and sustainable economic growth government should focus on the policies which facilitate increasing revenue. 5.2 Discussion Various studies have analyzed the causal relationship between government expenditure and revenue. Some supported with unidirectional causality occurring from revenue to spending and from expenditure to revenue whereas some have indicated the result of bidirectional causality. However, both the variables have significant impact on budget deficit and economic growth. Fiscal deficit in Pakistan is a major issue as the findings of cross correlation indicates that the revenue and expenditures are correlated which means that as revenue increase expenditure increases and deficit remains at the same level and to compensate this deficit government increases its debt financing from domestic and foreign sources which leads towards inflation and high interest rates. 5.3 Implications and Recommendations The model and analysis of this study is very useful for economists and policy makers as it helps in enhancing revenue by tax reform programs. In addition for the determination of optimal spending expenditure reform assessment can be done through cost and benefit analysis which will help in setting objectives for tax collections and better utilization of taxes. 5.4 Future Research Future research possibilities could be as follows first variables like national income and debt financing could be included in the research. Second data sets of multiple countries would be interesting to analyze the causal relationship using the same model in comparison with this research.
Friday, May 15, 2020
The movement in Heart of Darkness represents the journey in and out of literal and figurative darkness of the story. It represents the literal journey in and out of darkness because the main character describes the journey in and out of Mr KurtzÃ¢â¬â¢ ivory cabin as the journey in and out of the Ã¢â¬Ëheart of darknessÃ¢â¬â¢. Another journey in and out of the darkness of the story is the moral darkness of the story when the main character makes more and more twisted decisions as the story goes on. The third journey in and out of darkness is in the reality of the story as the sun sets and the listeners canÃ¢â¬â¢t see the narrator, but they still listen to the story. The movement of the ship adds meaning to the story because it represents the literal journeyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Hadnt he said he wanted only justice? But I couldnt. I could not tell her. It would have been too darkÃ¢â¬âtoo dark altogether. . . .Ã¢â¬ The last way movement adds to the meaning of the s tory is during the times when the actual narrator is describing what is happening while listening to MarlowÃ¢â¬â¢s story. MarlowÃ¢â¬â¢s story starts being told on a ship on the Thames in daylight. As the story is told, time passes (as it should) and the sun sets. By the end of the story, it is the middle of the night and the people listening to the story can barely see each other or Marlow at all and the ship that they are on hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t moved at all. The transition from day to night outside the story represents the listeners to MarlowÃ¢â¬â¢s story realizing how dark and twisted he actually is and the lack of actual movement on the ship in the Thames represents how Marlow has been this twisted since the beginning of the story. Ã¢â¬Å"Marlow ceased, and sat apart, indistinct and silent, in the pose of a meditating Buddha. Nobody moved for a time. We have lost the first of the ebb, said the Director, suddenly. I raised my head. The offing was barred by a black bank of clouds, and the tranquil waterway leading to the uttermost ends of the earth flowed somber under an overcast skyÃ¢â¬âseemed to lead into the heart of an immense darkness.Ã¢â¬ In conclusion, movement in Heart of Darkness adds meaning to the story in several different ways. The amount of physicalShow MoreRelatedEssay on A Journey into Darkness in Heart of Darkness1439 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesA Journey into Darkness in Heart of Darkness Ã Ã Ã Ã Joseph Conrad, in his story, Heart of Darkness, tells the tale of two mens realization of the dark and evil side of themselves. 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When he eventually reaches Kurtz, Marlows perceptionRead MoreEssay on journeyhod Journey Motif in Heart of Darkness and Jasmine1046 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesJourney Motif in Heart of Darkness and JasmineÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã In Joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness and Bharati Mukherjees Jasmine, the physical journey represents the setting for the psychological journey that both main characters undergo. Each stage of the journey is correlated to an emotional insight, and the implications are great enough to incur a change in the protagonists lives. Through the discovery of distant lands and foreign ideas, Marlow and Jasmine are prompted to look internally to findRead More Savage Journey in Joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness Essay927 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHeart of Darkness:Ã Savage JourneyÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Inherent inside every human soul is a savage evil side that remains repressed by society. Often this evil side breaks out during times of isolation from our culture, and whenever one culture confronts another. 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When we compare things, we look at what the similarities are in said items such as a popular brand or a generic one. Comparing things such as two literary works, Things Fall Apart, by Chinua Achebe, and, Heart of Darkness, by Joseph Conrad, both have a lot of similarities that we will look at. In Things FallRead More Prejudice and Racism in Heart of Darkness? Essay872 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHeart of Darkness: Racist or not? Ã Many critics, including Chinua Achebe in his essay An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrads Heart of Darkness, have made the claim that Joseph Conrads novel Heart of Darkness, despite the insights which it offers into the human condition, ought to be removed from the canon of Western literature. This claim is based on the supposition that the novel is racist, more so than other novels of its time. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020
In the short story Ã¢â¬Å"Red Dress-1946Ã¢â¬ , Alice Munro suggests that a person can have fears of standing out and embarrassment due to societyÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations. This can pressure one to conform with the majority, and ignore foresights of their future when making life-altering choices. The narrator is led to believe by her mother and her peers that the only way of living a happy life is to find a good husband. This idea is changed when she meets a girl named Mary Fortune who challenges the typical idea of ordinary, but her fear of being different ultimately leads her back to trying to fit into societyÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations. This blinds her from the foresight that she is following the same path as her mother, and her life could result similar to herÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦By being pressured to fit in, she resorts to self-harm which displays the negative impact of societyÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations for women to look a certain way. In addition, the hardships of being a woman in 1946 were displayed as the female teacher helplessly Ã¢â¬Å"begged [the boys]Ã¢â¬ to behave and often Ã¢â¬Å"burst into tearsÃ¢â¬ . Women were considered less superior compared to men, thus they were more vulnerable to the opinions and actions of others because they had more difficulty defending themselves. Eventually, the narrator has no choice but to go to the school dance with the foresight of humiliation. At the school dance, Ã¢â¬Å"a Paul JonesÃ¢â¬ dance symbolises society and the road the narrator is taking in life where the girls are in the inner circle, the boys are in the outer circle and they end up with whoever is in front of them. The girls barely have a choice with who they end up with, similar to how the narrator does not have an opinion or choice, she is simply desperately waiting for anyone who picks her because she does not want to stand out which leads to embarrassment. The narrator is acutely aware of the Ã¢â¬Å"worldÃ¢â¬â¢s opinionÃ¢â¬ . When she r ealized she was one of the few girls left without any boys claiming her, she felt as if Ã¢â¬Å"everybody knew itÃ¢â¬ . The pressure to conform makes her overly critical of herself, and although she might feel embarrassed and feel like everyone is focusing on her,Show MoreRelatedFeminist Criticism In Alice Munros Axis1087 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesor short story, relating to the present sexism. Ruled by the mental and social prisons of society, the protagonists of Alice MunroÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"AxisÃ¢â¬ are the embodiment of the struggles faced by women seeking refuge from the dominant patriarchy during the 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s. Although this short story is usually perceived as a thriller, it clearly exhibits a very prominent feminist standpoint. This theme is exposed through the power relationships of the characters in the book, the structuring of masculinity and femininityRead MoreLiterary Analysis Of Alice Munro s How I Met My Husband 1783 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesLiterary Analysis Ã¢â¬â Edie and Alice MunroÃ¢â¬â¢s Life Alice MunroÃ¢â¬â¢s short story, Ã¢â¬Å"How I Met My HusbandÃ¢â¬ has a narrator that is one of a kind and a true reflection of the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s lifestyle. The symbolic meaning of EdieÃ¢â¬â¢s role in the story can be directly related to the life Alice Munro was living and striving for herself. Edie is a 15-year-old girl who strives for marriage and affection from men, has been raised in a country/rural setting, and does poorly in obtaining a higher education due to many reasonsRead MoreComing of Age in Alice MunroÃ¢â¬â¢s Boys and Girls Essay1086 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn Alice MunroÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Boys and Girls,Ã¢â¬ there is a time line in a young girlÃ¢â¬â¢s life when she leaves childhood and its freedoms behind to become a woman. The story depicts hardships in which the protagonist and her younger brother, Laird, experience in order to find their own rite of passage. The main character, who is nameless, faces difficulties and implications on her way to womanhood be cause of gender stereotyping. Initially, she tries to prevent her initiation into womanhood by resisting her parentÃ¢â¬â¢s
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Galileo Galili Essay, Research Paper electronic mail: triaxxxxx @ aol, comGalileo GaliliGalileo Galilei was born in Pisa Italy on February 15, 1564. Later in the 1570 # 8217 ; s his male parent, Vincenzo Galileo moved his household to the close by metropolis of Florence. He was the oldest of four kids, and as a kid he was the most likely inclined to be the smarter of the household. It was here that Galileo # 8217 ; s formal instruction began at a school in a close by monastery. This school was taught by monastics, and for a piece it was belied that Galileo would turn up to go a member of the spiritual orders. At the school he studied Greek, Latin and logic. since his male parent was a musician, he received an debut and a musical background. Then eventually in 1581 he was accepted and entered the University of Pisa, where he was analyzing medical specialty. Then after some clip passed he grew bored of medical specialty. He found a deep involvement in the field of mathematics. It seemed that all of his clip was spent analyzing mathematics. When he turned 21 he was forced to go forth the university because of a deficiency of involvement, stoping his formal instruction. After he left all his clip was spent he continued his research of mathematics. While he was analyzing he became an familiarity Marchese de Monte. After Marchese de monte saw Galileo # 8217 ; s work he grew interested in him. Shortly afterward he was taken in by Marchese to help him in his research. It was as if Galileo was his learner. They both worked together to explicate the Treatise on the Centers of Gravity. It was this paper that they wrote which foremost made Galileo # 8217 ; s presence felt in the universe of scientific discipline. Marchese helped him to obtain a place as a professor at the University of Pisa. There he spent the following two old ages learning. He was forced to go forth because other professors and pupils the mselves considered his instructions to be extremist and utmost. After he was forced to go forth he headed back place to pass clip with his household. A short piece after he arrived to Florence his male parent passed off. He was forced to remain and keep the household. Then in 1952 he managed to he was offered a occupation at the University of Padua. There he worked for many old ages with other scientist instruction and perusal every bit good. In 1604 Galileo heard that the swayers of Florence and Venice were going interested in a new creative activity. It was an optical instrument used to detect distant objects. This was an early version of our modern twenty-four hours telescope. Galileo had set out to construct one of his ain telescope. Then four yearss subsequently he presented his telescope to the Venice senate, and was given a two-base hit in rise and he secured a lasting occupation. Galileo used pendulums extensively in his experiments. Early in his calling, he researched the f eatures of their gesture. After look intoing their behaviour, he was able to utilize them as clip measuring devices in ulterior experiments. Pendulums are mentioned in both Galileo # 8217 ; s Dialogue Refering the Two Chief World Systems and his Dialogues Refering Two New Sciences. In these two plants, Galileo discusses some of the major points he discovered about pendulums.Pendulums about return to their release highs. All pendulums finally come to rest with the lighter 1s coming to rest faster. The period is independent of the British shilling weight. He said the square of the period varies straight with the length. So the clip the it takes for the pendulum to swing from one side to the other squared varies harmonizing to the length of the swing. Galileo observed that the British shilling of pendulums about return to their release tallness. In his experiment the pendulums were released from different highs. The tallness the pendulum returned to was noted and compared to the relea se tallness. Every clip he released the pendulum it returned to the about the same release height.Galileo noted that each clip he swung pendulums the lighter one came to rest quicker. As a trial of this observation, he dropped two pendulums of the same size but different weight at the same clip and tallness. A British shilling of lead was the same as British shilling of cork. He released the two at the same clip after he pulled them both back about five grades. Then he saw that after the cork pendulum stopped the lead pendulum kept traveling. He that the mean figure of swings for the cork British shilling was less than the mean figure of swing for the lead bob.Galileo claimed that the pendulum period was different from the tallness at which they are released in Two New Sciences. To acquire to his decision he suspended two pendulums with indistinguishable lead British shilling. He released them at the same clip from different angles. One was pulled back about 5 grades while the other was released from about 45 grades. The pendulum pulled back five grades was allowed to go through 30 rhythms, and the Numberss of complete swings of the other pendulum during this clip were counted.The pendulum which traveled through the larger angle had a longer period. He saw that pendulums with different release highs do non hold the same period. It appeared that pendulums with larger release highs have longer periods. The difference was little. After analyzing at the University of Pisa, he was appointed to the chair of mathematics. It was at Pisa, the celebrated tilting tower gave manner to Galileo # 8217 ; s most celebrated experiment. First of all the theory which about everybody had accepted at the clip was the traditional theory of Aristotle, who believed that heavier objects fall more rapidly than lighter 1s. Imagine Aristotle at the top of the tilting tower of Pisa, dropping off two cannon balls, one twice every bit heavy as the other. Harmonizing to Aristotle, it should fall twice as fast. If it were four times heavier, it should fall four times faster. But in fact, what the tilting tower of Pisa type of experiment demonstrated, when really performed, was that Aristotle was incorrect. No affair what the difference in weight, two heavy objects will fall at the same time at virtually the same speed.It was for there grounds that Galileo was in deficiency of better footings fired from his learning place at Pisa. Galileo # 8217 ; s involvement in confuting Aristotle # 8217 ; s Theory about falling objects, came about he had foremost thought about this during a hailstorm. It was so when he saw that both big and little hailstones hit the land at the same clip. When Galileo thought about it, it didn # 8217 ; Ts make sense to him. What was the opportunity that if hail was to fall the larger rocks dropped from a higher point in the clouds or that the lighter 1s started falling earlier than the heavier 1s. Neither of the two seemed really likely to Galile o. When Galileo showed his category that his manner of confuting Aristotle thoughts he climbed the tower and through two bowlders of different weights away. He had predicted that the two would fall at the same time through his thoughts of the hailstorm. When he did it he found his consequences to be true. At his clip, what he did by confuting Aristotle was traveling against society. For awhile he was considered an castaway because of his research. Galileo following set out to work with inclined planes and how gravitation affected acceleration. His chief involvement in gravitation was to see if there was a manner for him to decelerate down or cancel gravitation consequence, so he could detect the rate of acceleration. He believed that if he could acquire gravitation off the object in gesture, so every bit shortly as it reached id full velocity it wouldn # 8217 ; t halt unless it was acted upon. Here is a presentation of his thought. Suppose that we were to stand on top of a hill and at the underside there is a level surface widening for stat mis. Then if we were to turn over a ball down the hill it would pick up velocity because gravitation would draw it down faster, picking up impulse. The addition of impulse is referred to as acceleration. Now every bit shortly as the ball reached the level portion of the hill it should go on turn overing until it is acted upon. But we know that it would halt because clash would be the force moving on it. At this point Galileo reasoned that gravitation is no longer drawing on the ball to increase its speed uping its gesture, but instead gravitation becomes changeless and the ball should ideally go in a consecutive line. This thought is the basic thought through which inactiveness is based on. Inertia is the belongings of affair that causes it to defy any alteration of its gesture in either way or velocity. This belongings is accurately described by the first jurisprudence of gesture of the English scientist Sir Isaac Newton: An object at remainder tends to stay at remainder, and an object in gesture tends to go on in gesture in a consecutive line unless acted upon by an outsi de force. For illustration, riders in an speed uping car experience the force of the place against their dorsums get the better ofing their inactiveness so as to increase their speed. As the auto decelerates, the riders tend to go on in gesture and lurch forward. If the auto turns a corner, so a bundle on the auto place will skid across the place as the inactiveness of the bundle causes it to go on traveling in a consecutive line. Any organic structure whirling on its axis, such as a flywheel, exhibits rotational inactiveness, a opposition to alter of its rotational velocity. To alter the rate of rotary motion of an object by a certain sum, a comparatively big force is required for an object with a big rotational inactiveness, and a comparatively little force is required for an object with a little rotational inactiveness. Flywheels, which are attached to the crankshaft in car engines, have a big rotational inactiveness. The engine delivers power in rushs ; the big rotational inactiveness of the flywheel absorbs these rushs and keeps the engine presenting power swimmingly. An object # 8217 ; s inactiveness is determined by its mass. Newton # 8217 ; s 2nd jurisprudence provinces that a force moving on an object is equal to the mass of the object multiplied by the acceleration the object undergoes. Therefore, if a force causes an object to speed up at a certain rate, so a stronger force must be applied to do a more monolithic object accelerate at the same rate ; the more monolithic object has a larger sum of inactiveness that must be overcome. For illustration, if a bowling ball and a baseball are accelerated so that they end up turn overing at the same velocity, so a larger force must hold been applied to the bowling ball, since it has more inactiveness. Gravitation is belongings of common attractive force possessed by all organic structures of affair. The term is sometimes used synonymously, but decently refers merely to the gravitative force between the Earth and objects on or near it.The jurisprudence of gravity, foremost formulated by the English physicist Sir Isaac Newton in 1684, states that the gravitative attractive force between two organic structures is straight relative to the merchandise of the multitudes of the two organic structures and reciprocally relative to the square of the distance between them. In algebraic signifier the jurisprudence is statedF=G m1m2 2 dwhere F is the gravitative force, M1 and m2 the multitudes of the two organic structures, d the distance between the organic structures, and G the gravitative invariable. The value of this invariable was foremost measured by the British physicist Henry Cavendish in 1798 by agencies of the tortuosity balance. The best modern value for this invariable is 0.0000000000667 Newton metre squared per kg squared ( 6.67 + 1011 N m2 kg-2 ) . The force of gravity between two spherical organic structures each holding a mass of 1 kg and holding a distance of 1 metre between their centres is 0.0000000000667 Newtons. This is a really little force ; it is equal to the weight of an object on Earth with a mass of about 1/150,000,000,000 kgs. Acceleration is besides known as additive acceleration or the rate at which the speed of an object alterations per unit of clip. Acceleration is a vector that is, it has both magnitude and way. Acceleration is unvarying if the rate of alteration of an object # 8217 ; s spe ed is the same over consecutive and equal clip intervals. For illustration, an object that is released and allowed to fall freely towards the land is accelerated uniformly. An object tied to a twine and swung at a changeless velocity in a circle above a individual # 8217 ; s caput is besides accelerated uniformly ; in this instance, the acceleration vector points along the twine toward the individual # 8217 ; s manus. Angular acceleration is the rate at which the rate of rotary motion of a whirling object alterations per unit of clip. In the winter of 1609 he set out his telescope up and began to look into the stars and the skies. He recorded his findings in Siderous Nuncuis, which subsequently made him celebrated all through out Europe. In his paper he stated his findings. He found that the Moons surface was similar to that of the Earth, in that it was cragged. He discovered that the Milky Way was made up of cardinal stars. Subsequently he found that the planet Jupiter had what a ppeared to be rings. Than when he built a Microscope of greater magnitude he saw and identified four rings. When looking into the sky one twenty-four hours he noticed that Venus was much larger than old antecedently believed. He noticed that the planet Venus had several phases merely like the Earth # 8217 ; s Moon. From there he would subsequently construct and assist the universe today understand the enigma of our solar system. The telescope is a adult male made instrument that is used to amplify objects at a distance. The development of the telescope is credited to three people: Hanz Lippershey- the discoverer, Galileo- credited for the usage in scientific probe, and Johannes Kepler was the first to use the convex lens to a telescope, for a greater magnification and field of vision. The telescope which Galileo used is referred to a refracting telescope. It is made up of a hallow tubing and two lenses, on one side the ocular and on the other side the glass lens referred to as the nonsubjective lens. The nonsubjective lens gathers the light gathers the visible radiation from the object being viewed. When the light hits the nonsubjective being viewed. When the light hits the nonsubjective lens the beams are dead set until they come to a point. An image of the object being viewed is found at the focal point. When the visible radiation reached the ocular the image of the focal point is enlarged, and the object being viewed is enlarged and appears to be much larger. Since the image was dead set as it passed the nonsubjective lens, the image viewed appears to be upside down.. By adding another piece of glass the image can be dead set right side up one time once more. After his authorship of Physics and the telescope he began to derive acknowledgment. The acknowledgment caught the attending of Cosimo de Medici. Cosimo de Medici was one of the for male parents of modern twenty-four hours Cosmology. When he got in contact with Galileo he invited him to return to Flor ence as a mathematics adviser to the Duke. He was speedy to accept and pass much of his clip there keeping conferences to show and uncover his thoughts of the skies and gravitation. Then later his occupation took him to Rome. For four months in 1611 he spent his clip instruction, Discused and showing his thoughts and finds. After returning to Florence in 1613, he wrote a missive in which he attempted to show that the Copernican Theory agreed with both the Catholic Doctrines and Biblical readings. The people and groups against Galileo # 8217 ; s thoughts sent a transcript of the missive to the philosophers of Rome. Then in 1616, he was summoned to Rome for an official rating of his religion, and the function his faith played on his scientific thought. He was allowed to go forth with no charges of unorthodoxy. He was cleared of charges, but was told that he couldn # 8217 ; t publicly compose of or remark on the Capernical Theory. The Copernican theory is based on the thought that th e planets revolve around the Sun. As the planets revolve around the Sun, they besides spin one a day.This spin was te cause for the forming of dark into twenty-four hours and daay into night.This thought was formulated by a adult male with the name of Nicholous Copernicous of Poland.All of his ideas were revealed in his book entitled # 8220 ; On the Revolution of the Heavonly Spheres. He had no manner of turn outing himself other that he mathematical equations. Then in 1634 traveling against his prohibition on discoursing the Copernican theory. He released his book entitled Dialogue Refering the Two Chief World Systems. In his book he compared the Copernican theory to the Ptolemaic theory. He stated and proved his thoughts that the Copernican theory of the planets was more logical.because he went against his orders he was called back to Rome one more clip. This clip he was non able to get away the accusals of unorthodoxy. He was ordered take back his statements in his book and was so sentanced to life in prison. Since he grew old and his wellness detiriorated, the church allowed him to pass the balance of his yearss in a little villiage ouside of Rome. There he wrote his concluding book on entitled Discourse on Two New Sciences, in 1638. In that book he indicated his mathematical equations to turn out his thoughts of Physicss, inactiveness and falling bodies.Shortly after the release of his book he lost his sight. Then in 1642 he died in Florence, stoping his life sentence for unorthodoxy aginst the church. Galileo is considered the laminitis of meredn twenty-four hours natural philosophies. His parts are still the footing of what we study today. He was a adult male far beyond his clip.
Monday, April 13, 2020
Icai Essay Reserve Bank of India has reviewed the prudential guidelines on restructuring of advances by banks/ financial institutions vide circular DOBB. No. BP. BC. 63/21. 04. 048/2012-13 applicable for all scheduled commercial banks excluding Orbs dated November 26, 2012 and has decided: I) To enhance the provisioning requirement for restructured accounts classified as standard advances from the existing 2. 0 per cent to 2. 75 per cent in the first two years from the date of restructuring. In cases of moratorium on payment of interest/ principal after restructuring, such advances will attract a provision of 2. 75 per cent for the period covering moratorium and two years thereafter; and that Restructured accounts classified as non-performing advances, when upgraded to standard category will attract a provision of 2. 5 per cent in the first year from the date of upgrading instead of the existing 2. 00 per cent. In accordance with the above, loans to projects under implementation, when restructu red due to change in the date of commencement of commercial operations (DOC) beyond he original DOC as envisaged at the time of financial closure and classified as standard advances would attract higher provisioning at 2. 75 per cent as against the present requirement of 2. 0 per cent as per the details given below: Infrastructure projects Particulars Provisioning Requirement If the revised DOC is within two years from the 0. 40 per cent original DOC prescribed at the time of financial closure If the DOC is extended beyond two years and Upton four years or three years from the original DOC, as the case (Ref. : DOBB. NO. BP. BC. 85121. 04. 048/2009-10 dated March 31, 2010) 2. 5 per cent From the date of such restructuring till the revised DOC or 2 years from the date of restructuring, whichever is later. We will write a custom essay sample on Icai specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Icai specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Icai specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Non-infrastructure projects If the revised DOC is within six months from the original DOC prescribed at the time of financial closure If the DOC is extended beyond six months and Upton one year from the original DOC prescribed at the time of financial closure (Ref. : DOBB. NO. BP. BC. 85121. 04. 048/2009-10 dated 0. 40 per cent 2. 75 per cent From the date of such restructuring for 2 years. All other extant guidelines on Income Recognition, Asset Classification and Provisioning pertaining to advances will remain unchanged. Note: (Common for Intermediate (PC) Paper 1 and Paper 5) Non-Applicability of Mind ASS for November, 2013 Examination The MAC has hosted on its website 35 converged Indian Accounting Standards (Mind AS) without announcing the applicability date. These are the standards which are being converged by eliminating the differences of the Indian Accounting Standards visit-Ã ¤-visit FIRS. (Students may note that Mind ASS are not applicable in November, 2013 Examination. However, Accounting Standards as specified in the syllabus are applicable for them in November, 2013 examination. Paper 4: Taxation Applicability of Finance Act, Assessment Year etc. For November, 2013 examination (1) The amendments made by the Finance Act, 2012 in income-tax and service tax; The provisions of income-tax law as applicable for the assessment year 2013-14; The significant notifications and circulars issued Upton 30th April, 2013 (mincemeat and service tax) (The Study Materials relevant for May, 2013 and November, 2013 examinations are updated based on the provisions of law as amended by the Finance Act, 2012 and significant circulars and notifications issued up to 30. 6. 2012. The amendments made y the Finance Act, 2012 in income-tax and service-tax and notifications and circulars issued between 1. 5. 2011 and 30. 4. 2012 in income-tax are also separately discussed in the publication Supplementary Study Paper-2012. ) Paper 6: Auditing and Assurance S. NO Standards on Auditing (As) AS Title of Standard on Auditing Effective Date AS 200 Overall Objectives of the Independent Auditor and the April 1, 2010 Conduct of an Audit in Accordance with Standards on Auditing 2 AS 210 Agreeing the Terms of Audit Engagements April 1, 2010 3 AS 220 Quality Control for Audit of Financial Statements 4 AS 230 Audit Documentation April 1, 2009 5 AS 240 The Auditors responsibilities Relating to Fraud in an April 1, 2009 Audit of Financial Statements 6 AS 250 Consideration of Laws and Regulations in An Audit of April 1, 2009 Financial 7 AS 260 Communication with Those Charged with Governance 8 AS 265 Communicating Deficiencies in Internal Control to Those April 1, 2010 Charged with Governance and Management 9 AS 299 Responsibility of Joint Auditors April 1, 1996 AS 300 Planning an Audit of Financial Statements April 1, 2008 11 AS 315 Identifying and Assessing the Risks of Material April 1, 2008 Misstatement through Understanding the Entity and its Environment 12 AS 320 Materiality in Planning and Performing an Audit 13 AS 330 The Auditors Responses to Assessed Risks 14 AS 402 Audit Considerations Relating to an Entity Using a April 1, 2010 Service Organization 15 AS 450 16 AS 500 Audit Evidence 17 AS 501 18 AS 505 Specific Considerations for Selected April 1, 2010 Items External Confirmations 19 AS 510 Initial Audit Engagements-opening Balances 20 AS 520 Analytical Procedures 21 AS 530 AS 540 Auditing Accounting Estimates, Including Fair Value April 1, 2009 Accounting Estimates, and Related Disclosures AS 550 Related Parties 24 AS 560 Subsequent Events 25 AS 570 Going Concern 26 AS 580 Written Representations 27 Using the Work of Another Auditor April 1, 2002 28 AS 610 Using the Work of Internal Auditors 29 AS 620 Using the Work of an Auditors Expert April, 2010 AS 700 Forming an Opinion and Reporting on Financial April 1, 2012 31 AS 705 Modifications to the Opinion in the Independent Auditors April 1, 2012 Report 32 AS 706 Emphasis of Matter Paragraphs and Other Matter April 1, 2012 Paragraphs in the Independent Auditors Report
Wednesday, March 11, 2020
Current research into the health-related impact of bullying at work. Abstract Current research into the health-related impact of bullying at work. from [cipd.co.uk/NR/rdonlyres/D9105C52-7FED-42EA-A557-D1785DF6D34F/0/bullyatwork0405.pdf] Cook, C.R., Williams, K.R., Guerra, N.G., Kim, T.E. Sadek, S. (2010). Predictors of bullying and victimization in childhood and adolescence: a meta-analytic investigation. School Psychology Quarterly, 25(2), pp. 65-83. American Psychological Association. Coyne, I., Seigne, E. Randall, P. (2000) Predicting workplace victim status from personality. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 9(3), pp. 335-349. Taylor Francis Daniel, T.A. (2006). Bullies in the workplace: A focus on the Ã¢â¬Å"abusive disrespectÃ¢â¬ of employees. SHRM Whitepapers. Retrieved 16/12/2012 fromÃ [http://moss07.shrm.org/Research/Articles/Articles/Pages/CMS_018341.aspx.] Einarsen, S. (2003). Individual effects of exposure to bullying at work. Bullying and Emotional Abuse in the Workplace: International Perspectives in Research and Practice. London: Taylor Francis. Fuller, Robert W. (2003). Somebodies and Nobodies: Overcoming the Abuse of Rank. Gabriola Island, Canada: New Society Publishers. Hoel, H., Cooper, C.L., (2000). Destruction conflict and bullying at work. UMIST Survey. Retrieved 16/12/2012 from [socialpartnershipforum.org/SiteCollectionDocuments/UMIST%20report.pdf ] Kurth, S. B., Spiller, B.B., Travis, C. B. (2000). Consent, power and sexual scripts: Deconstructing sexual harassment. In C. B. Travis J. W. White (Eds.), Sexuality, society and feminism, pp. 323-354. Washington, D.C. American Psychological Association. Mark,G.M. Smith,A.P. 2008. Stress models: A review and suggested new direction. Vol. 3.Ã Ã Nottingham University Press. .Namie, G., Namie, R. (2000). The bully at work: What you can do to stop the hurt and reclaim your dignity on the job. Naperville, IL: Sourcebooks, Inc. Rick, J., Perryman, S., Young, K., Guppy A. Hillage, J. (1998). Workplace trauma and its management: a review of the literature. IES Report. Retrieved 17/12/2012 from [hse.gov.uk/research/crr_pdf/1998/crr98170.pdf] Sansone, R.A. Sansone, L.A. (2008) Bully Victims: Psychological and Somatic Aftermaths. Psychiatry (Edgmont), 5(6), pp. 62Ã¢â¬â64. Turney, L. (2003) Mental health and workplace bullying: The role of power, professions and on the job training. Australian e-Journal for the Advancement of Mental Health, 2(2), [auseinet.com/journal/vol2iss2/turney.pdf] UNISON, (2003). Bullying at work. Retrieved 16/12/2012 from [unison.org.uk/acrobat/13375.pdf] Vartia, M. (2001) Consequences of workplace bullying with respect to the well-being of its target Ã andÃ the observers of bullying. Scandinavian Journal of Work Environment and Health, 27(1), pp. 203-214.
Monday, February 24, 2020
With recent headlines in mind, identify five reasons for the public not to trust the government and five reasons for the public to trust the government - Research Paper Example In the United States our government is based on the Democratic model which allows input from the people as a result of their voting and electing of representatives who also vote. Government is made up of these representatives in two specific houses, Senate and Congress and it is called the legislative branch. The executive branch consists of the president, vice president and his cabinet of advisors. These branches are almost exclusively responsible for decisions that affect the lives of hundreds of millions of United States citizens, as well as potentially affecting billions across the planet. Trusting or not trusting this entity that controls so much is a hard question to understand. When asked more than one friend made it clear that we needed to support the government and trust that they were doing what is right by us, specifically they mentioned approaches taken in the security arena with regards to air travel and travel in general in the United States. The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) has the unenviable job of providing for the security of millions of annual travelers via air travel, and more recently the possibility of scanning and checking millions of travelers via trains, busses and other vehicles as well as pedestrians in some areas. (Greenberg) Additionally the friends mentioned the efforts made by the United States to introduce Democracy into Iraq and Afghanistan. The initial reasons for our being in those nations having to do with the terrorist attacks with planes against the United States on 9/11, while those reasons and nations have since been cleared of wrongdoing in the terrorism approach we are still there ten years after the fact. Lastly, my friends mentioned that we should trust them because they help others, they referenced the Haiti earthquakes and the large amounts of aid and people we sent to assist them, they also referenced the recent BP oil spill and the Hurricane that